COVID-19 Vaccine Immune Response in Long-Term HSCT Survivors

Einarsdottir S, Martner A, Waldenström J, et al. Deficiency of SARS-CoV-2 T-Cell Responses After Vaccination in Long-Term Allo-HSCT Survivors Translates Into Abated Humoral Immunity. Blood Advances. 2022; (doi: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2021006937).

A recent study found that COVID-19 vaccines induce weaker T-cell immune responses among hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients (median 7 years post-HSCT) compared with healthy controls. Researchers screened samples from 50 infection-naive allo-HSCT recipients and 39 controls for immunoglobulin G serum against the receptor-binding-domain (RBD) in spike 1 (S1) of SARS-CoV-2 (anti-RBD-S1 IgG) and for SARS-CoV-2 T-cell immunity. Twenty-four percent of allo-HSCT patients and 6% of controls remained seronegative following two doses of vaccine. After the first vaccination, T-cell responses against S1 peptides were absent in 58% of transplant recipients and 19% of controls. Similar responses were observed after the second vaccination, with 28% of allo-HSCT patients and 6% of controls lacking measurable T-cell immunity. This effect was a forerunner of substandard concentrations of anti-RBD-S1 IgG 5-6 months after the second dose of COVID-19 vaccine.

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