Research recently published in Transplantation and Cellular Therapy presents a study conducted at the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo which investigated the CD3 cell and regulatory T cell (Tregs) ratio (CD3/TregsR) on the rate of acute Graft Versus Host Disease (aGVHD). The authors concluded that instances of aGVHD were correlated with a low graft CD3/TregsR (<70).
For patients receiving allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplants (allo-PBSCT) for leukemia, there is a risk that T cells from the donor graft can attack the transplant recipient, resulting in GVHD. Thus, the researchers were driven to explore the relationship of CD3/TregsR on the aGVHD outcomes in 94 patients, with the aim of enhancing post-allo-PBSCT outcomes.
Patients enrolled in this study were in remission from either acute myelogenous or lymphoblastic leukemia, and had undergone either matched related donor or unrelated donor allo-PBSCT. Individuals with a low CD3/TregsR exhibited lower instances of developing aGVHD (9%) as compared to individuals characterized by a high CD3/TregsR (27%). Further, at the 3-year follow up period, patients exhibited survival, disease-free survival, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse rates of 54%, 55%, 23%, and 30%, whereby demonstrating the importance that a lower graft CD3/TregsR plays in the prevention of aGVHD when treating leukemia patients.
Delia M, Carluccio P, Mestice A, et al. The Impact of Graft CD3 Cell/Regulatory T Cell Ratio on Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease and Post-Transplantation Outcome: A Prospective Multicenter Study of Patients with Acute Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation [published online ahead of print, 2021 Aug 14]. Transplant Cell Ther. 2021;S2666-6367(21)01144-1.