Using cell-free DNA to detect cGVHD

Avni B, Neiman D, Shaked ED, et al. Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Detected by Tissue-Specific Cell-Free DNA Methylation Biomarkers. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2023; (doi: https://www.jci.org/articles/view/163541).

Researchers have shown that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) methylation markers can detect chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), a complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), even when no clinical symptoms are present. The scientists used a cocktail of tissue-specific markers to gauge the concentration of cfDNA molecules derived from the liver, skin, lungs, colon, and specific immune cells of transplant patients. Among the study population of 101 HCT patients, those confirmed to have active cGVHD also has elevated levels of cfDNA. The investigators developed an integrative model that, after factoring in total cfDNA concentration, monocyte/macrophage cfDNA levels, and Alanine transaminase, accurately identified GVHD with 86% specificity and 89% precision.

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Tags: GVHD, hematology, hematopoietic, Graft function, cGVHD, graft, graft-versus-host disease, graft-vs-host disease, graft-versus-host